Day 1 :
PhD. student, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, WITS- 2050, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Time : 14:00
Mr. Sourav Taru Saha is a PhD. student working on Breast cancer at the University of the Witwatersrand. The research group’s main focus is the link between Cholesterol and Breast cancer. Till now, his research has shown promising results and in 2018 the concept would be tested in vivo. Based on the results, this research might lead to a novel drug in treating Breast cancer
Cancer cells have an increased need for cholesterol, which is required for cell membrane integrity. Cholesterol accumulation has been described in various malignancies including breast cancer. Cholesterol has also been known to be the precursor of estrogen and vitamin D, both of which play a key role in the histology of breast cancer. Thus, depleting the cholesterol levels in cancer cells is a proposed innovative strategy to treat cancer. Therefore, novel cholesterol-depleting compounds are currently being investigated. KS-01 is a cyclic amylose oligomer composed of glucose units. It solubilizes the cholesterol and is proven to be toxicologically benign in humans. This led us to hypothesize that it might deplete cholesterol from cancer cells and may prove to be a clinically useful compound. Our work provides preliminary experimental evidences to support this hypothesis. We identified the potency of KS-01 in vitro against two breast cancer cell lines: MCF-7 (Estrogen positive, ER+), MDA-MB-231(Estrogen negative, ER-) and compared the results against two normal cell lines: MRC-5 (Normal Human Lung Fibroblasts) and HEK-293 (Normal human embryonic kidney cells) using cytotoxic, apoptosis and cholesterol based assays. KS-01 treatment reduced intracellular cholesterol resulting in significant breast cancer cell growth inhibition through apoptosis. The results hold true for both ER+ and ER-. These data suggest that KS-01 can prevent cholesterol accumulation in breast cancer cells and is a promising new anticancer agent.
- Target Therapy
Chemist, University of Athens
Theodoros Mikroulis is a chemist working at the interface of Organic and Medicinal Chemistry for the development of drugs and other biologically-related compounds against various diseases. He graduated from the Department of Chemistry of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and obtained a M.Sc. degree in Medicinal and Biological Chemistry at the University of Edinburgh. He is currently working towards his PhD on the synthesis of photoactive compounds that can potentially be used as anticancer agents, in the research group of Professor Georgios C. Vougioukalakis in the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Statement of the Problem: Treatment of aggressive and not accessible tumors, such as glioblastoma multiforme, is based on the synergistic result of surgical operation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, these techniques come not only with serious side effects, but also with marginal improvement of the patient’s life expectancy.1Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) has emerged as an attractive alternative to conventional cancer treatment. It induces destruction of cancer cells upon irradiation of specific photoactive compounds called photosensitizers (PS), usually by generating the highly reactive single-state oxygen 1O2.2-4Transition metal complexes have been utilized in PDT exactly because they can promote such photochemical transformations, exhibit strong absorption in the UV-Vis region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and relatively long emission lifetimes of their triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer state (3MLCT).5-6The present study reports the synthesis of three novel Cu(II)-based complexes, bearing bidentate bipyridine-type ligands able to intercalate to the DNA strand and cleave it upon irradiation, resulting in apoptosis of the treated cells. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Three novel Cu(II)-based complexes were synthesized and characterized using mass spectroscopy, FT-IR and UV-Vis. The binding constants of these complexes with DNA were determined (before and after irradiation) by calculating the concentration of the complex at 50% quenching of DNA-bound ethidium bromide emission intensity. Agarose gel electrophoresis helped visualize the ability of these complexes to bind and cleave DNA upon irradiation. Findings: These novel complexes show high affinity for DNA, (calculated binding constants were one order of magnitude lower than that of ethidium bromide). When incubated in the dark, complexation with DNA resulted in only a small amount of fragmentation, which was substantially enhanced after irradiation, especially when the concentration of the complexes was increased to 200μM or higher. As a result, these complexes could potentially be used as photosensitizers in PDT.
- Cancer Immunotherapy & Vaccines
Phd, Mount Kenya University
- Cancer Epigenomics
Medicine Chief Resident, University of New York
Gordon Moffat has his experience in Life Sciences with an Honors in Biology with training in Radiology. His passion for science and interest in microbiology lead him to pursue and obtain a Doctor of Medicine. Currently he is working at the State University of New York Brooklyn Health Sciences Center in Internal Medicine and the forthcoming Medicine Chief Resident. His professional interests include: Medical Oncology, Hospice and Palliative Medicine, and Geriatric Medicine. He is currently working on research projects at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in Manhattan, New York that are expected to be published. He is also a candidate for the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society Postgraduate Fellowship Award.
Purpose of Study: Identifying mutations in breast cancer genes (BRCA1/2, PABL2) has important clinical implications on a woman's lifetime susceptibility for breast cancer development. Nearly 10% of immigrants to the United States come from the Caribbean and few studies exist that examine breast cancer gene mutations in African-Caribbean women with existing breast cancer. The purpose is to review breast cancer epidemiology statistics and prevalence of breast cancer genetic mutations in this cohort.
Summary of Results Although breast cancer cumulative incidence risk of Caribbean women (5-9%) appear to be less than that of the US women (10%), the cumulative mortality risk in the Caribbean cohort (up to 2.7%) appears greater than that of the US (1.6%). Through a PUBMED literature search, we have also identified five cross-sectional cohort studies on breast cancer patients of Caribbean women who have undergone genetic mutation testing for BRCA1/2 and PALB2 with 27% cases in Bahamas (N=214 women); 2.8% cases in Jamaica (N=179 women); 10.4% cases in Trinidad/Tobago (N=268 women); none in Barbados (N=118 women); 2.6% in Cuba (N=307 women). No study accounted for ascertainment bias.
Conclusions This study summarizes the estimate of breast cancer incidence and mortality in Caribbean women and known prevalence of BRCA1/2 and PALB2 breast cancer gene mutations in this cohort. This is critical as part of a formal genetic risk assessment and counseling of patients with breast cancer. Further research and understanding the contributions of inherited gene mutations will guide the optimal health policy in breast cancer screening and risk management.
- Cancer Metabolism
I did my graduation and post graduation from University of Calcutta. I am a M.Sc. graduate with CGPA 4.93 out of 6 CGPA scale in physiology from university of Calcutta, India having a distinguished centre of excellence in my country . I did my thesis consulting good professors in the field of Physiology from Calcutta university and also carried out some projects of Physiology co-operating with some professors in India .Previously I was working as a senior lecturer and Head of the Department of Physiology. Now I am working as a lecturer in Govt. Medical College . In future I plan to utilize the experience of medical college and the knowledge and skill of advanced medical devices for Physiology research. I did a project in cancer biology at the time of my post graduation studies and the name of the project is" Application of Nanorobotics as a better treatment option for cancer" and after that I also worked with oxidative stress induced hypertrophy condition and other topics of Exercise Physiology
It is an innovative approach for the development of nanorobots with sensors for medicine. The potential medical applications of nanorobots are vast and ambitious. In the past decade, researchers have made many improvements on the different systems required for developing practical nanorobots, such as sensors, energy supply, and data transmission .The nanorobots operate in a virtual environment comparing random, thermal and chemical control techniques. The nanorobot architecture model has nanobioelectronics as the basis for manufacturing integrated system devices with embedded nanobiosensors and actuators, which facilitates its application for medical target identiﬁcation and drug delivery. In future if someone diagnosed with cancer will be offered a new alternative to chemotherapy. The traditional treatment of radiation that kills not just cancer cells but healthy human cells as well, causing hair loss, fatigue, nausea, depression, and a host of other symptoms are not to be an only option. The patient can be treated with an injection of a special type of nanorobot that would seek out cancer cells and destroy them, dispelling the disease at the source, leaving healthy cells untouched. Patient undergoing a nanorobotic treatment could expect to experience rapid betterment of their health.