Day 3 :
- Track 7: Socio-Economic impact of Cancer
Rima Dada is Professor at AIIMS, New Delhi and Director Lab for Molecular Reproduction and Genetics. Dr Dada did MD and Phd in Medical Genetics. She has several national and international awards to her credit and has published over 100 articles in indexed journals of high impact and written over 65 chapters in books.She is on editorial board of several journals and her field of interest is understanding the role of genetic factors and oxidative stress in infertility and RSA and the impact of lifestyle intervention- meditation /yoga on sperm DNA quality
Sperm is highly vulnerable to oxidative damage to both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA due to minimal cytosolic anti-oxidants and deficient DNA damage repair mechanism. Recent studies have shown that there is increased incidence of children with Retinoblastoma (Rb) in children conceived by ART and in cases where fathers smoke. This study was planned to analyze the sperm DNA quality in fathers of children with non familial Rb (NFRb).A total of 75 fathers of children with NFRb and 75 fathers of healthy children were recruited for the study. Semen samples were collected and normal semen parameters analyzed. Markers for Sperm DNA damage calculated as DNA fragmentation index (DFI), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels were analysed.The fathers underwent 6 months intervention of yoga and meditation. In the fathers of RB, the seminal mean ROS levels were significantly higher (36.086±1.83 vs 20.51±2.71 RLU/s/million; p<0.05) than in controls. here was a significant increase in mean DFI levels (31.50±6.67 vs 21.9±9.4; p<0.001) and the levels of 8-OHdG levels (66.02±2.91 vs 23.10±2.71 pg/ml) were significantly higher (p<0.05) in fathers of Rb cases vs controls. Only 24 cases underwent 6 month practice of meditation/yoga and these cases showed significant decline in all 3 parameters. Oxidative damage to sperm DNA may be the aetiology of Rb as oxidized mutagenic DNA adducts persist even after fertilization. There was significant improvement in DNA integrity following practice of meditation/yoga and this may reduce incidence of childhood morbidity and even cancer.
International Medical University, Malaysia
Title: Measuring health-related quality of life impacts among head and neck cancer patients of a developing country
Time : 09:25-09:50
Sobia Bilal, BDS, MSc, PhD, who graduated from Baqai Medical University, Pakistan, practices at International Medical University, Malaysia. She has an MSc degree in Dental Public Health from the University of London and a PhD in Dental Public Health from the University of Malaya, Malaysia. Her areas of research interests include Quality of Life of H&N Cancers, Oral Health Promotion, Tobacco cessation and qualitative research paradigm
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) information can provide useful prognostic and treatment decision-making information for head and neck cancer patients. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the impact of head and neck cancer and its treatment on the HRQoL of Pakistani head and neck cancer patients. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy -Head and Neck (FACT-H&N)-V4 in Urdu language was administered using face-to-face interviews among a consecutive clinical convenience sample of 361 head and neck cancer patients in three identified tertiary care settings in Karachi, Pakistan. Socio-demographic details were obtained from patients whereas clinical details were extracted from their medical records. The correlations between the factors (socio-demographic and clinical) and the FACT summary scales were statistically analyzed with 'general linear modeling' (GLM) using 'multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA)'. Overall poor to moderate HRQoL was noted among the sample group. Highest negative impact noted for Emotional-well-being domain whereas least impact was noticed for Social-well-being. A significant gradient showed higher scores for patients with small tumors (0-2cms), oral cavity tumors, early stage tumors (I &II) and those under pre-treatment phase; whereas lowest scores were noted for those patients with large tumors (>6cms), laryngeal/pharyngeal tumor, SCC, late stage tumors (III & IV), and in the on-going treatment status and palliative care group. This study reports significant impact of head and neck cancer and its treatment on Pakistani patients. Physicians and surgeons in developing countries should be cognizant of the importance these factors in the HrQOL of their patients. - See more at: http://cancer.global-summit.com/asia-pacific/scientific-program.php?day=1&sid=996&date=2015-07-20#sthash.xeX7yfjm.dpuf
Chidlren's Cancer Centre, Australia
Time : 09:50-10:15
Mary worked as Nursing Unit Manager of the Cancer Centre for 25 years and now in her current role of Community Liaison Manger for 12 years. She obtained her Post-Grad Dip in Oncology from Latrobe University in 1991. She was a founding member of the Oncology Nurses Special Interest Group in the 1980’s and is a member of many Philanthropic and support groups for Childhood Cancer. She has presented at both national and international nursing and parent conferences. She is the current Oceanic representative for Childhood cancer International.
220 children under the age of 18 are diagnosed with childhood cancer annually in Victoria. The diagnosis of cancer in a child is devastating with far-reaching psychosocial, emotional and financial implications for not just the child but also the family system as a whole. Due to an increased survival rate of 82% more and more is being learned about the long term impact of this disease. Some of these former families have the need to meet current families experiencing similar experiences and/or want to give something back to patients, families and treatment centres. The No 2 standard of the Australian Health Services Accreditation Standards is “Consumers Engagement” In 2002 the Children’s Cancer Centre Parent Advisory Group (PAG) was established. Parents and staff from the unit form the membership of this group and work together to improve the overall outcomes for our families. However, it should be borne in mind prior to starting a PAG, that the necessary infrastructure should exist within the organisation in order to support the successful management of a volunteer programme. There are several key elements to address when developing a PAG what motivates people to volunteer; identifying and recruiting volunteers, screening, selection and training and most importantly, retention and recognition. The management and empowerment of volunteers through providing regular support, supervision and on-going evaluation is essential to protect both the beneficiary and the volunteer. This presentation will go through the development, the growth and achievements as well as the pit falls of PAG.
Harbin Medical University, China
Time : 10:30-10:55
Guoxiang Liu is a Professor and Director of Department of Health Economics at Harbin Medical University (HMU). He has completed his PhD at the HMU and has published over 32 papers in reputable journals since 2008. He is a national expert and Consultant in the field of National Health Account preventing and controlling cancer, payment method in health insurance, health financing and economical operation management Scheme in public hospital. Additionally, he is also a Member of the Editorial Board for the Journal of Chinese Health Economics and the Journal of Chinese Health Resources
CRC takes a second and fourth position in the incidence and mortality lists respectively among all malignant tumors in urban populations in China. Effective early detection and prevention of Colorectal Cancer (CRC) were successfully achieved and confirmed by large-scale randomized controlled trials of CRC screening. The project “Comparison and Evaluation of Screening Programs for Colorectal Cancer in Urban Communities in China” (CESP) was undertaken from July 2006 to December 2008 in China. Based on the CESP project, this study was designed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of two different CRC screening protocols: Fecal occult blood test (FOBT) alone and FOBT plus a high-risk factor questionnaire (HRFQ) as the respective initial screens followed by colonoscopy. We developed a Markov model to simulate the progression of a cohort of 100,000 average risk asymptomatic individuals moving through a defined series of states between the ages of 40 to 74 years. The study revealed that a combined use of FOBT and HRFQ is preferable in CRC screening programs as an initial screening instrument. Annual FOBT+HRFQ screening is recommended for those who have a negative initial result and those who have a positive result but have failed to continue to colonoscopic examination. Repeated colonoscopy (for those with a negative colonoscopy result) should be performed at a ten-year interval instead of one-year. Such a protocol would cost 7732 Yuan per life year saved which is the most cost-effective option. These results provide helpful experiences and references for current national CRC screening projects in China.
University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Title: Characterization and protein engineering of L-asparaginase 1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to evaluate its use as biopharmaceutical
Time : 10:55-11:20
Gisele Monteiro de Souza has completed her Ph.D at the age of 27 years from University de São Paulo and postdoctoral studies from the same University. Now, she is professor of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology at Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences (FCF/USP) andthe vice-coordinator of the Graduate Course in Biochemical-Pharmaceutical Technology. She has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals and serving as an associate editor of Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. She has received 10 scientific awards, including internationals. The main scientific interest is the study of molecular targets involved in cell response to antitumor drugs and the engineering of proteins used as biopharmaceuticals, such as asparaginase.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common neoplasia in children. The leukemic cells depend on the presence of L-asparagine (Asn) in the bloodstream for protein synthesis and cell proliferation. L-asparaginase (ASNase) is an important anticancer biopharmaceutical in the treatment of the disease, since it hydrolyzes Asn resulting in ammonia and aspartic acid preventing tumor cells of using such amino acid for protein synthesis leading to apoptotic cell death. ASNase is currently obtained from Escherichia coli and Erwinia chrysanthemi and both formulations are associated with a high rate of adverse effects mainly drug resistance and severe hypersensitivity which undermine the progress and effectiveness of the treatment. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has the gene ASP1 responsible for the production of L-asparaginase 1 (ScASNase1) that possesses high similarity in amino acids sequence with the bacterial enzymes used as biopharmaceutical. However, there are few studies about ASNase produced by S. cerevisiae. Thus, this work aims to verify the catalytic efficiency of ScASNase1 to characterize the catalytic site and perform site directed mutagenesis to improve the kinetic parameters and compare them with bacterial ones to assess whether ScASNase1 may represent an interesting therapeutic alternative in the treatment of ALL. The ScASNase1 was isolated from the S. cerevisiae genomic DNA and cloned into NdeI and BamHI restriction sites of pET15b expression vector which was cloned in E. coli (BL21 (DE3)) for protein expression. The proteins were purified by metal affinity chromatography.The specific activities and kinetic parameters were obtained using the Nessler's reagent (Merck) colorimetric method for identification of ammonia. The ScASNase1 showed an specific activity of 330 U/mg, K0, 5=8, 9 mM with a Hill coefficient value of 2.005 indicating positive co-operativity of the enzyme with substrate and catalytic efficiency of 4×104 M-1. The reactions of site directed mutagenesis at residues of predicted catalytic site (T64A, T141A, K215A and Y78A) and at residues S301N, A331D, ΔG77, Y243S and K335E supposed to improve kinetic parameters were performed using the kit QuickChange® (Agilent Technologies). The proteins with mutations T64A, T141A, K215A and Y78A showed 99% loss of activity compared to wild type. The ScASNase1was characterized in relation to cytotoxic effect in leukemia cells MOLT-4 and presented antitumor activity. The isoforms S301N, A331D, ΔG77, Y243S and K335E were obtained and will be expressed to the determination of their kinetic parameters compared with the wild type and the bacterial enzymes. Our results suggest that ScASNase1 shows allosteric feature and considering the catalytic efficiency and specific activity, it seems to be promising as biopharmaceutical.
KIIT University, India
Title: Induction of apoptosis by 4-(3-(tert-butylamino) imidazo [1, 2-α] pyridine-2-yl) benzoic acid in breast cancer cells via up-regulation of PTEN
Time : 11:20-11:45
Sumit Siddharth is a senior PhD scholar continuing his work on Cancer Biology at KIIT University, India. His research is mainly focused on exploring the link between metastasis and cancer stem cells. He has studied the anti-cancer and anti-metastatic potentiality of several bioactive as well as chemically synthesized small molecule inhibitors (SMI) in breast cancer model system. He has published 12 papers in reputed peer-reviewed journals and has been awarded as “Senior Research Fellow” from Indian Council of Medical Research
We have previously reported that 4-(3-(tert-butylamino) imidazo [1, 2-α] pyridine-2-yl) benzoic acid, a bicyclic N-fused amino imidazoles derivative (BNFA-D), possesses anti-cancer potentiality against breast and kidney cancer cells with minimal toxicities to corresponding normal cells. Here, we explored the mechanism of action of BNFA-D in breast cancer cells using multiple cell-based assays such as MTT, DAPI, FACS, Western blot and immunoprecipitation. BNFA-D caused apoptosis by up-regulating PTEN leading to inhibition of Wnt/TCF signaling cascade and arresting S phase in breast cancer cells. Expression levels of β-catenin, cyclin D1, C-MYC, and phospho-AKT (Ser (473)) decreased with simultaneous increase in the levels of GSK3β, CK1, and PTEN in BNFA-D-treated MCF-7 cells. Interestingly, silencing of PTEN in breast cancer cells reversed the phenomenon of Wnt/TCF signaling cascade inhibition after BNFA-D treatment.
Manipal University, India
Title: A cross-sectional study on the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by cancer patients in a tertiary care hospital
Time : 11:45-12:10
Harsha Kumar H N is an Associate Professor in the Department of Community Medicine, KMC Mangalore. He teaches Community Medicine.
Background: Use of Complimentary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) by cancer patients has increased across the world. Not much about use of CAM in India is known. So this study was undertaken.
Objectives: To know the proportion of cancer patients using CAM attending a tertiary care centre, to know the patterns of usage of CAM amongst these patients and to know the reasons and perceptions which made them use CAM
Materials & Methods: This is an interview based cross sectional study conducted among cancer patients being treated in tertiary care hospital. The patients were interviewed to know the usage patterns, reasons and perceptions behind the use of CAM. The interview schedules were analyzed using SPSS Version 10. Chi-square test was used to know the association between independent variables with CAM usage. P <0.05 was considered significant.
Results: About 33.8% of the patients used one or more types of CAM. Ayurveda was the most common (50%) of the CAM tried by the patients. The predominant reason for use was as an adjuvant for allopathy (50%). Newly diagnosed cancer patients tend to try CAM more than those who are on treatment for more than a year (p<0.05). Majority of them did not inform their doctors about CAM usage.
Conclusion: The usage of CAM could be higher than reported. If patients are satisfied with allopathy then CAM is used only as an adjuvant. Doctors should make an attempt to know as most of the patients would not disclose the usage of CAM.