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41st World Cancer Conference, will be organized around the theme “”
World Cancer 2022 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in World Cancer 2022
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Cancer is caused when cells within the body accumulate genetic mutations and start to grow in an uncontrolled manner. Understanding how cancer develops and progresses, including how gene mutations drive the growth and spread of cancer cells, and how tumours interact with their surrounding environment, is vital for the discovery of new targeted cancer treatments.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. Different cancers affecting different parts of the body e.g. breast, prostate, lungs, blood cells (leukaemia) or other organs behave in different manner, are of different grades and cellular type, respond differently to treatment and have different set of effective treatment regimen. An oncologist is a doctor who treats cancer. Within oncology there are several sub-specialities that deal with different types of cancer
Radiation Oncology encompasses all aspects of research that impacts on the treatment of cancer using radiation. Radiation can be given as a curative modality, either alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy. It may also be used palliatively, to relieve symptoms in patients with incurable cancers. The Radiotherapy/radiation therapy is broadly segmented into Teleradiotherapy, Brachy-radiotherapy and Metabolic Radiotherapy. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medicine that uses radiation to provide information about the functioning of a person's specific organs or to treat disease. Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues.\r\n
Surgery is used to diagnose stage and treat cancer, and certain cancer-related symptoms. It is the branch of surgery applied to oncology; it focuses on the surgical management of tumours, especially cancerous tumours. Surgical oncology is a specialized area of oncology that engages surgeons in the cure and management of cancer. Whether a patient is a candidate for surgery depends on factors such as the type, size, location, grade and stage of the tumour, as well as general health factors such as age, physical fitness and other medical comorbidities. For many patients, surgery will be combined with other cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy or hormone therapy.
\Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition. Stem Cells and Tumours cancer cells also have the characteristic which is also associated with normal stems cells. Stem Cell Therapy is using to prevent the disease. Stems cells transplant is used to treatment of cancer like leukaemia, multiple myeloma & lymphoma. Cord Blood Stem and Cancer cord blood contains haematopoietic (blood) stem cell. They have long been used in stem cell treatments for leukaemia, blood and bone marrow disorders when chemotherapy is used.
Precision medicine is the tailoring of medical treatment to the individual characteristics of each patient and his or her disease. Moreover, through the precision medicine approach, the treatment of each patient can be focused on drugs most likely to benefit him or her, sparing the patient the cost and potential harmful side effects from drugs that are unlikely to be beneficial. Oncology has been leading precision medicine efforts largely because of our immense knowledge of the role of genetic mutations in the development and progression of cancer. Precision medicine enables to approach detection, diagnosis and treatment in an in-depth way to determine how a cancer develops, grows and spreads.
A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumour or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer. Genetic, epigenetic, proteomic, glycomic, and imaging biomarkers can be used for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and epidemiology. While some cancer biomarkers can be used to predict how aggressively your cancer will grow, and are therefore useful for assessing your prognosis, the most promising use of biomarkers today is to identify which therapies a patient’s cancer may or may not respond to.
Cancer Epidemiology includes the study of the factors affecting cancer, to infer possible trends and causes. The study of cancer epidemiology uses epidemiological methods to find the cause of cancer and to identify and develop improved treatments. It can be used to identify events that increase or decrease cancer incidence in specific populations. The studies related to population-based research on cancer etiology, prevention, surveillance and survivorship, analytical, and molecular epidemiology, survivorship studies, risk factors, as well as the role of behavioural factors in cancer etiology and prevention are also included.
Cancer prevention is defined as active measures to decrease the risk of cancer. Most of cancer cases are due to environmental risk factors, and many, but not all, of these environmental factors are controllable lifestyle choices. An individual's risk of developing cancer can be substantially reduced by healthy behaviour. Cancer Prevention Research comprises preclinical, clinical and translational research, with special attention given to molecular discoveries and an emphasis on building a translational bridge between the basic and clinical sciences.
Cancer can be treated by different processes. The choice of therapy depends upon the location and grade of the tumour and the stage of the disease, as well as the general state of the patient). Many experimental cancer treatments are also under development. Some people with cancer will have only one treatment. But most people have a combination of treatments, such as surgery with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. You may also have immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or hormone therapy.\r\n
Cancer pharmacology plays a key role in drug development. In both the laboratory and the clinic, cancer pharmacology has had to adapt to the changing face of drug development by establishing experimental models and target orientated approaches. It also focuses on developing experimental approaches to the clinical treatment of cancer through research that bridges the fields of molecular carcinogenesis, biochemical pharmacology, radiation biology, and clinical pharmacology. It generally involves the pharmacological and oncological aspects of drugs at both an experimental and clinical level.
Cancer vaccines generally either treats existing cancer or prevents development of a cancer. Cancer treatment vaccines are made up of cancer cells, parts of cells, or pure antigens. Sometimes a patient’s own immune cells are removed and exposed to these substances in the lab to create the vaccines.\r\n
Cancer immunology is a branch of immunology that studies interactions between the immune system and cancer cells (also called tumours or malignancies). It is a field of research that aims to discover cancer immunotherapies to treat and retard progression of the disease. Cancer immunotherapy also known as Immuno-oncology is the use of the immune system to treat cancer. Immunotherapies can be categorized as active, passive or hybrid (active and passive). The immune response, including the recognition of cancer-specific antigens, forms the basis of targeted therapy (such as vaccines and antibody therapies) and tumour marker-based diagnostic tests.\r\n
Oncology Nursing is a field involving practice encompasses the roles of direct caregiver, educator, consultant, administrator, and researcher. Oncology and cancer nursing extends to all care delivery settings where clients experiencing or at risk for developing cancer receive health care, education, and counselling for cancer prevention, screening and detection. It also involves appropriate screenings and other preventative practices, symptom management, care to retain as much normal functioning as possible, and supportive measures upon end of life.
Alternative cancer treatments may not play a direct role in curing your cancer, but they may help you cope with signs and symptoms caused by cancer and cancer treatments. CAM is the term for medical products and practices that are not part of standard care. Integrating the best of evidence-based complementary and alternative cancer treatments with the treatments you receive from your doctor may help relieve many of the symptoms associated with cancer and its treatment.
Increased cancer awareness improves survival. Social and Economic Impact also harm the quality of cancer care. People who are not financially not strong do not receive good treatment. Cancer symptom awareness and cancer survival are associated. Cancer Awareness Program is conducted by government and many organizations to bring the awareness in the people to decrease the cancer levels & towards all oncology programs. Campaigns should focus on improving awareness about cancer symptoms, especially in socioeconomically deprived areas.
Many factors influence the development of cancer. Over the last 25 years, science has shown that diet, physical activity, and body weight—especially being overweight or obese—are major risk factors for developing certain types of cancer. Around a third of the most common cancers could be prevented through lifestyle changes. The main behavioural and environmental risk factors for cancer mortality in the world are related to diet and physical inactivity, use of addictive substances, sexual and reproductive health and exposure to air pollution and use of contaminated needles. The body’s ability to resist cancer may be helped by following a healthy diet, staying physically active, and avoiding excess body fat. Cancer and cancer treatments can also affect your body's ability to tolerate certain foods and use nutrients.
If one is fighting cancer, it is not uncommon to experience psychological distress. Whether it is coping with the diagnosis, the challenges of treatment, or continued worry about a recurrence, emotions brought on by the cancer experience can be difficult to handle. Cancer’s effects are far more than physical. Many survivors find that cancer’s impact spills over into the emotional, psychological and spiritual realms. This might happen either during or right after treatment - or not for years.
Drug discovery and development together are the complete process of identifying a new drug and bringing it to market. Discovery may involve screening of chemical libraries, identification of the active ingredient from a natural remedy or design resulting from an understanding of the target.